NEET PG Anatomy Notes |UPPER LIMB|Part 1

neet pg anatomy notes

NEET PG Anatomy Notes|Upper limb|Part 1 Bones and Joints of the upper limb Topics:- 1.Bones of the shoulder girdle 2.Bones of the arm and forearm 3.Bones of the hand 4.Joints and ligaments of the upper limb 1.BONES OF THE SHOULDER GIRDLE (A) Clavicle (Collarbone) ■ Is a commonly fractured bone that forms the pectoral (shoulder)…Read moreRead more

NEET PG Anatomy Notes|UPPER LIMB|Part 2

neet pg anatomy notes

NEET PG Anatomy NOTES|Upper limb|Part 2 Cutaneous Nerve,Superficial Veins ,and Lymphatics Topics- 1.Cutaneous Nerves of the Upper limb 2.Superficial Veins of the upper limb 3.Superficial lymphatics of upper limb   1.Cutaneous Nerves of the Upper limb A. Supraclavicular Nerve ■ Arises from the cervical plexus (C3, C4) and innervates the skin over the upper pectoral,…Read moreRead more

Cellular adaptation and Cellular aging

cellular adaptation

CELLULAR ADAPTATION & CELLULAR AGING CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS These are reversible changes in the size, number, phenotype, metabolic activity or functions of cells constitute cellular adaptations. Types of adaptations: Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy and metaplasia. Hypertrophy Defnition: Increase in the size of the tissue or organ due to increase in the size of cells Causes Increased functional…Read moreRead more

Notes on Cell Injury(Apoptosis,Necrosis,Gangrene)

Cell injury

CELL INJURY (Apoptosis,Necrosis,Gangrene) Defnition: Cell injury is the effect of stresses due to variety of etiological agents on the cell. Causes of Cell Injury 1.Hypoxia: It refers to inadequate oxygenation of tissue. Causes of hypoxia: •(a) Decreased blood flow is called ischemia. (b)• Inadequate oxygenation of the blood (hypoxemia) – Due to pulmonary disease. –…Read moreRead more

Notes on Chemistry of Lipids

Chemistry of lipid

Notes on Chemistry of Lipids Lipids may be defned as compounds which are relatively insoluble in water, but freely soluble in non-polar organic solvents, such as benzene, chloroform, ether, hot alcohol, acetone, etc. Classification of Lipids I Simple lipids a. Triacylglycerol or Triglycerides or neutral fat b. Waxes II. Compound lipids A. Phospholipids, containing phosphoric…Read moreRead more

Notes on Carbohyrates and it’s Metabolism

Carbohydrate and it's metabolism

  Notes on Carbohyrates and it’s Metabolism Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic molecules in nature. They are primarily composedof the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis. FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATE 1. Carbohydrates are the main sources of energy in the body….Read moreRead more

Notes on Transport through cell membrane

Transport through cell membrane

Notes on Transport through cell membrane INTRODUCTION All the cells in the body must be supplied with essential substances like nutrients, water, electrolytes, etc. Cells also must get rid of many unwanted substances like waste materials, carbon dioxide, etc. The cells achieve these by means of transport mechanisms across the cell membrane.  BASIC MECHANISM OF…Read moreRead more

Notes on Cell Physiology ,Apoptosis and Gene expresion

Cell physiology

Notes on Cell Physiology ,Apoptosis and Gene expresion CELL PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION:- CELL:- Cell is defned as the structural and functional unit of the living body.  General Characteristics of Cell Each cell in the body: 1. Needs nutrition and oxygen 2.Produces its own energy necessary for its growth, repair and other activities. 3.Eliminates carbon dioxide and…Read moreRead more

Notes on Axilla and Brachial plexus

Axilla

 Notes on AXILLA  AND BRACHIAL PLEXUS Axilla:- INTRODUCTION:-  ‘Truncated pyramidal’space between upper part of arm and chest wall has 4 walls, apex, base.   Contents of The Axilla -Axillary artery and its branches -Axillary vein and its tributaries -Infraclavicular part of brachial plexus -Intercostobrachial and long thoracic nerves -Axillary lymph nodes -Loose areolar tissue and…Read moreRead more

Notes on Pectoral Region and Anatomy of Breast

Pectoral region

  Notes on PECTORAL REGION AND MAMMARY GLAND(BREAST) Muscles of the pectoral region.   1. Pectoralis major muscle 2. Pectoralis minor muscle 3. Subclavius muscle Pectoralis major:- Origin:- (1).Clavicular head;from the front of the medial third of the clavicle.     (2).Sternocostal head; from the anterior aspect of the sternum and the upper six costal cartilages….Read moreRead more