Notes on Carbohyrates and it’s Metabolism


  Notes on Carbohyrates and it’s Metabolism Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic molecules in nature. They are primarily composedof the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis. FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATE 1. Carbohydrates are the main sources of energy in the body….Read moreRead more

Notes on Transport through cell membrane

Transport through cell membrane

Notes on Transport through cell membrane INTRODUCTION All the cells in the body must be supplied with essential substances like nutrients, water, electrolytes, etc. Cells also must get rid of many unwanted substances like waste materials, carbon dioxide, etc. The cells achieve these by means of transport mechanisms across the cell membrane.  BASIC MECHANISM OF…Read moreRead more

Notes on Cell Physiology ,Apoptosis and Gene expresion

Cell physiology

Notes on Cell Physiology ,Apoptosis and Gene expresion CELL PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION:- CELL:- Cell is defned as the structural and functional unit of the living body.  General Characteristics of Cell Each cell in the body: 1. Needs nutrition and oxygen Produces its own energy necessary for its growth, repair and other activities. Eliminates carbon dioxide and…Read moreRead more

Notes on Axilla and Brachial plexus

Axilla and brachial plexus

 Notes on AXILLA  AND BRACHIAL PLEXUS Axilla:- INTRODUCTION:-  ‘Truncated pyramidal’space between upper part of arm and chest wall has 4 walls, apex, base.   Contents of The Axilla -Axillary artery and its branches -Axillary vein and its tributaries -Infraclavicular part of brachial plexus -Intercostobrachial and long thoracic nerves -Axillary lymph nodes -Loose areolar tissue and…Read moreRead more

Notes on Pectoral Region and Anatomy of Breast

pectoral region

  Notes on PECTORAL REGION AND MAMMARY GLAND(BREAST) Muscles of the pectoral region.   1. Pectoralis major muscle 2. Pectoralis minor muscle 3. Subclavius muscle Pectoralis major:- Origin:- (1).Clavicular head;from the front of the medial third of the clavicle.     (2).Sternocostal head; from the anterior aspect of the sternum and the upper six costal cartilages….Read moreRead more

Notes on Glaucoma


 Notes on GLAUCOMA   Definition of glaucoma:- Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy in which there is a characteristic loss of retinal ganglion cells and atrophy of the optic nerve. Types of glaucoma- 1.Congenital or developmental glaucoma Primary- Due to primary developmental anomaly at the angle. Secondary– Associated with other ocular or systemic disorders. 2….Read moreRead more